Class 8 english grammar-Parts of Speech-Unit-1, Lesson-1

Class 8 english grammar-Parts of Speech-Unit-1, Lesson-1

Look at the sentence below:

Sumona is a brilliant student.

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You can divide the above sentence in different parts, such as:

Sumona/is/a/brilliant/student.

Again these parts play different functions as:

i) Sumona refers to a person
ii) is →states something
iii) brilliant

gives more information about ‘student’

iv) student→refers to Sumona

Now, you understand that in Parts of Speech words are classified according to their functions. In English, there are eight parts of speech.

The lessons in this unit will discuss parts of speech. Do you remember them? Here is a beautiful poem that will help you remember the parts of speech.

Every name is called a noun,

As field and fountain, street and town;
In place of noun the pronoun stands

As he and she can clap their hands;

The adjective describes a thing,
As magic wand and bridal ring;

The verb means action, something done –
To read, to write, to jump, to run;

How things are done, the adverbs tell,
As quickly, slowly, badly, well;

The preposition shows relation,
As in the street, or at the station;

Conjunctions join, in many ways,
Sentences, words, phrases and clauses;

The interjection cries out, “Hark!
I need an exclamation mark!”

Discuss the following questions in pairs:

a) What do the bold words in the poem tell about each part of speech?
b) What examples of different parts of speech are given in the poem?
c) Can you think of more examples of each part of speech? What are some of them?

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Read the sentences below and identify each type of part of speech in it:

1. A frightened man was seeking help desperately.
2. The sun was setting slowly in the west.
3. A village boy came and asked the man, “Where did you find the golden chain around your neck?”

Now, read about each type of parts of speech:

Nouns: A noun is a word used to name something: a person/animal, a place, a thing, or
an idea. For example, all of the following are nouns.

•Rahul, Ann, Hamida, Malek
•Japan, Venezuela, the Atlantic, London, the Bay of Bengal
•pencil, store, music, air
•biology, honesty, geometry

Pronouns: A pronoun is a word that replaces a noun. It helps us to avoid repetitions.

For example: Instead of Elina talked to Elina’s child, you might say Elina talked to her child. Her is the pronoun. It refers to the noun, Elina.

Adjectives: An adjective modifies (describes) a noun or pronoun. Usually, in English, the adjective comes before the noun.

For example: The smart student earned an ‘A’.
Adjectives also come after linking verbs. For example: I feel happy.

Verbs: Verbs generally express an action or a state of being. There are several classifications for verbs – action verbs, linking verbs, main verbs, auxiliary verbs, transitive, intransitive and phrasal verbs.

For example:
Action verbs show action.
He runs. She plays. They study.
Linking verbs link the subject to an adjective or a noun.
Matin is intelligent. He is a teacher.
Here the linking verbs connect the adjective (intelligent) or a noun (teacher) with the subject.

Adverbs: An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. The teacher carefully checks the homework. (Here carefully is an adverb that modifies the verb check.)

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Examples:
Tomal was extremely enthusiastic about doing his homework. (Here extremely is an adverb that modifies the adjective enthusiastic.)
Maliha ran out of the classroom very quickly. (Here very is an adverb that modifies the adverb quickly.)

Prepositions: Prepositions are words that connect a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence. Some common prepositions are on, in, at, with, about, for, to, though.

Conjunctions: Conjunctions join together words, phrases and clauses.

Examples: He and his brother will come. (words)
He came to the class and started teaching.(clauses)
It is easy to say but difficult to do. (phrases)
She is intelligent; therefore, she does not need too much help. (clauses)

Interjections: Interjections are words used to express emotional states. They can usually be found in narrative writing, interviews, and in spoken English. They can stand alone.

Examples:
Oh!, Wow!, Ouch! Oops! Hey!

They can also be used in a phrase or sentence.

Examples: What a lovely day!
How strong the man is!

The same word as different parts of speech

Remember that the same word can be used as different parts of speech. Its function in the sentence will help you to determine the part of speech. Look at the following sentences and notice the functions of the word ‘well’ in each of the sentences:

He does not look well. (adjective)
The student did well in the test. (adverb)
Well, I don’t know about that. (interjection)

Exercise
Identify what part of speech each word is in the following sentences:
1. Wow! That is really nice.
2. He seemed sorry as he apologised to us.
3. Mother wanted an answer, but she did not get any reply from her daughter.

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Read the song and guess why it leaves out one part of speech. Share your idea with a partner.

A NOUN’s the name of anything,
As: school or garden, toy, or swing.
ADJECTIVES tell the kind of noun,
As: great, small, pretty, white, or brown.
VERBS tell of something being done:
To read, write, count, sing, jump, or run.
How things are done the ADVERBS tell,
As: slowly, quickly, badly, well.
CONJUNCTIONS join the words together,
As: men and women, wind or weather.

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